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Postgres Replication: Streamlining Data Transfer Between Databases

Experience swift Postgres replication, effortlessly transferring data between databases in just 10 minutes.

Step 1: Set up your source Postgres database (optional)
Step 2: Set up an Airbyte Postgres source and destination
Step 3: Create an Airbyte connection
Step 4: Verify that the sync worked
Wrapping up

PostgreSQL database replication has several purposes. It can help with high availability (if a server fails, a backup one can take over) and load-balancing (distributing traffic across multiple servers that provide the same data).

Enabling analytics is another increasingly popular purpose of database replication. Imagine that you have a Django application that uses PostgreSQL as an operational database. If you’d like to enable reporting and analytics on top of that database, it’s best to replicate it to another server not to interfere with the production application.

Data Replication offers a plethora of advantages, and leveraging a robust data replication tool like Airbyte adds an extra touch of finesse to its repertoire. It's like giving data replication a power boost with an array of impressive feathers in its cap!  With data replication tools, businesses can ensure data consistency, improve availability, and enhance disaster recovery capabilities.

No matter your replication purpose, this tutorial will show you how to easily replicate data from a PostgreSQL source to a PostgreSQL destination using Airbyte.

We will also introduce PostgreSQL native replication and the advantages of using Airbyte. If you want to skip those sections, feel free to jump to the prerequisites.

If you prefer to follow along with a video instead, we have created one, too!

What is Postgres Replication?

PostgreSQL replication is the process of copying and maintaining a duplicate set of data from one PostgreSQL database to another in real-time or near-real-time. This replication allows for data redundancy, fault tolerance, and load balancing, among other benefits. There are various methods of PostgreSQL replication, including streaming replication, logical replication, and trigger-based replication, each offering different capabilities and use cases.

What is Automatic Failover in PostgreSQL replication?

Automatic failover in PostgreSQL replication ensures seamless continuity of database operations by automatically switching to a standby server when the primary server fails. It constantly monitors server health, swiftly activating the standby server upon detection of primary server failure.

This process guarantees uninterrupted availability of database services, minimizing downtime and operational disruptions. It's a crucial feature for maintaining high availability and fault tolerance in PostgreSQL environments.

  • Seamless Transition: Automatically switches to standby server if primary server fails.
  • Continuous Monitoring: Constantly checks server health to detect failures promptly.
  • Uninterrupted Service: Ensures database service availability without manual intervention.
  • Minimized Downtime: Reduces disruptions, maintaining operational continuity.
  • Essential for Reliability: Vital for maintaining high availability and fault tolerance.

To overcome automatic failover challenges in PostgreSQL replication:

  • Implement robust monitoring: Continuously monitor server health and performance to detect failures promptly.
  • Set up automated alerts: Configure alerts to notify administrators of potential issues or failures in real-time.
  • Regularly test failover procedures: Conduct failover tests regularly to ensure the process works smoothly and efficiently.
  • Implement redundancy: Deploy redundant components, such as multiple standby servers, to minimize the impact of failures.
  • Maintain documentation: Document failover procedures and configurations to facilitate troubleshooting and recovery efforts.
  • Monitor and adjust thresholds: Monitor thresholds for failover triggers and adjust them as needed to optimize performance and minimize false positives.
  • Conduct training: Provide training to administrators and staff on failover procedures and best practices to ensure a swift and effective response to failures.

What are the PostgreSQL Replication Benefits?

PostgreSQL replication is a process that involves copying data from one PostgreSQL database to another in real-time or near-real-time. It ensures data consistency, availability, and scalability by maintaining multiple synchronized copies of the database.

Discover the advantages of implementing PostgreSQL replication for your database infrastructure.

  • High Availability: PostgreSQL replication ensures continuous access to data by creating multiple copies, reducing the risk of downtime.
  • Load Balancing: Distributes read queries across replicas, balancing the workload and improving performance.
  • Disaster Recovery: Provides a failover mechanism, allowing for quick recovery in case of primary database failure.
  • Scalability: Scales horizontally by adding more replicas, accommodating increased data volume and user load.
  • Geographic Distribution: Replication enables data distribution across different geographical locations, improving latency and disaster recovery capabilities.
  • Analytics Offloading: Offloads analytical queries to replicas, freeing up resources on the primary database for transactional workloads.
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What are native PostgreSQL replication techniques?

When it comes to PostgreSQL replication, there are various techniques to achieve it. Such techniques can be divided into disk-based, log-based, and SQL-based replication. We will primarily focus on log-based replication techniques.

PostgreSQL replication operates through different classes:

  • Single-Master: One primary database for writes and one or more read-only replicas.
  • Multi-Master: Multiple databases act as both primary and replica, allowing distributed writes.

At the same time, PostgreSQL provides several kinds of log-based replication: log-shipping, streaming, and logical replication. Let's explore:

  • Log-shipping replication
  • Streaming replication
  • Logical replication

Log-shipping replication

Log-shipping replication handles synchronization by allowing a primary server to change the data and standby server(s) to track changes in the primary server. The primary server is in continuous archiving mode, generating Write-Ahead Logging (WAL) files that the standby reads to keep in sync. Therefore, the standby is in recovery mode (which is read-only).

Because no modifications to the database tables are necessary to activate this functionality, it has a lower administrative overhead than alternative replication methods.

Streaming replication

Streaming replication is similar to log-shipping, with the difference that the standby connects to the primary, which transmits WAL records in real-time, rather than waiting for the WAL file to be full.

The fundamental disadvantage of log-shipping and streaming replication is that the standby server remains in recovery mode, and modifications are not permitted. Any changes made to the primary server are replicated on standby, making it impossible to replicate tables or databases selectively.

Logical replication

Logical replication is PostgreSQL’s technique for replicating data objects and modifications based on their identity, often a primary key. This type of replication also uses WAL files to build a stream of logical data changes, and it implements a publish-and-subscribe approach. Changes in the publisher are delivered to subscribers in real-time.

Unlike log-shipping and streaming, logical replication allows for per-table replication.

The most significant disadvantage of logical replication is that schema changes are not replicated and must be kept in sync manually. Tables lacking primary keys or unique identifiers will also have issues. You can read more about logical replication restrictions here.

Challenges of replicating PostgreSQL database natively include:

  • Complex Configuration: Setting up replication manually requires intricate configuration, potentially leading to errors or misconfigurations.
  • Maintenance Overhead: Manually managing replication adds to administrative overhead, requiring ongoing monitoring and maintenance.
  • Limited Automation: Native replication lacks automated failover and monitoring features, requiring manual intervention during failover or recovery scenarios.
  • Scalability Constraints: Scaling native replication to handle large volumes of data or high transaction rates can be challenging and may require additional manual configuration.
  • Potential Data Loss: Inadequate monitoring or misconfiguration may result in data loss or inconsistencies between primary and standby servers.
  • High Availability: Achieving high availability with manual replication setups may be difficult, as it typically requires complex configurations for failover and recovery processes.
  • Resource Intensive: Manual replication may consume significant resources, such as network bandwidth and server resources, particularly during synchronization or replication processes.

How to load data between PostgreSQL Databases?

Loading data between PostgreSQL databases can be done natively, but Airbyte offers flexibility and ease of use. While native replication solutions have minimal overhead, they come with limitations.

Airbyte allows different sync modes for each table within the same database, supporting full, incremental, and logical replication. This flexibility is beneficial when dealing with tables of varying sizes or requirements, such as those without primary keys.

With Airbyte, you can tailor replication methods to specific tables, ensuring efficient data synchronization. Let's dive into using Airbyte for PostgreSQL CDC.

Prerequisites

Step 1: Set up your source Postgres database (optional)

If you don’t have a readily available Postgres database to sync, here are some quick instructions. Run the following commands in a new terminal window to start backgrounded source and destination databases:


docker run --rm --name airbyte-source -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=password -p 2000:5432 -d postgres
docker run --rm --name airbyte-destination -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=password -p 3000:5432 -d postgres

Add two tables with a few rows to the source database:


docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "CREATE TABLE users(id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, col1 VARCHAR(200));"
docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "INSERT INTO public.users(col1) VALUES('record1');"
docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "INSERT INTO public.users(col1) VALUES('record2');"
docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "INSERT INTO public.users(col1) VALUES('record3');"

docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "CREATE TABLE cities(city_code VARCHAR(8), city VARCHAR(200));"
docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "INSERT INTO public.cities(city_code, city) VALUES('BCN', 'Barcelona');"
docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "INSERT INTO public.cities(city_code, city) VALUES('MAD', 'Madrid');"   
docker exec -it airbyte-source psql -U postgres -c "INSERT INTO public.cities(city_code, city) VALUES('VAL', 'Valencia');"

You now have a Postgres database ready to be replicated.

Alternatively, you can use a local Postgres database on your computer: use host.docker.internal (if you are on Mac) as the host instead of localhost when setting up the source and destination.

Step 2: Set up an Airbyte Postgres source and destination

If you didn’t do it before when deploying Airbyte, go to http://localhost:8000 to launch the UI.

Then, click on sources and add a new source. As the connector type, select Postgres. If you used our instructions above to create a Postgres database, fill in the following configuration fields.

  • Host: localhost
  • Port: 2000
  • User: postgres
  • Password: password
  • DB Name: postgres

We will use the “Standard” replication method to keep things simple for this tutorial. But you can use logical replication if needed. Follow along with this video to configure it for Postgres.

We will also use “No Tunnel” as the SSH option. If you want to use SSH, check out our documentation.

Click on "Set up source", and now you’re ready to configure a destination.

Go to destinations and add a new one. Select Postgres as the destination type and fill in with the following details.

  • Host: localhost
  • Port: 3000
  • User: postgres
  • Password: password
  • DB Name: postgres

That’s it. You have configured the source and destination.

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Step 3: Create an Airbyte connection

Go to connections and create a new connection. Then, select the existing Postgres source you have just created and then do the same for the destination. Once you’re done, you can set up the connection as follows.

  • Replication Frequency: I recommend setting it to “manual” if you’re testing. When you’re ready, you can change to any frequency that makes sense to your use case.
  • Destination Namespace: I selected a mirror source structure, so the schema and tables are the same as the source.
  • Destination Stream Prefix: I added the prefix tutorial_ so my table will be created as tutorial_users.

Then, it’s time to configure the streams, which in this case are the tables in our database. If we expand the tables, we can see the columns they have. We can also see they’re part of the public namespace or schema. The destination schema will be also public.

Now, you should select a sync mode. I chose Full refresh | Overwrite to sync the cities table and Incremental | Append for the users table since it has an id column (primary key) suitable for the incremental cursor field. The most important thing to note is that you can have different sync modes for each table! Learn more about sync modes in our documentation

Once you’re ready, save the changes. Then, you can run your first sync by clicking on “Sync now.” You can check your run logs to verify everything is going well. Just wait for the sync to be completed, and that’s it! You’ve synchronized two Postgres databases.


Step 4: Verify that the sync worked

Now, let's verify that this worked. Let's output the contents of the destination database:


docker exec airbyte-destination psql -U postgres -c "SELECT * FROM public.tutorial_users;"

docker exec airbyte-destination psql -U postgres -c "SELECT * FROM public.tutorial_cities;"

You should see the rows from the source database inside the destination database. Note that Airbyte added extra columns which contain metadata used to support synchronization.

Wrapping up

In this tutorial, you learned about PostgreSQL native replication and how to synchronize two Postgres databases with Airbyte. Apart from being straightforward, Airbyte is also highly flexible when it comes to selecting different synchronization methods for your replication.

If you enjoyed using Airbyte, you might want to check our fully managed solution: Airbyte Cloud.  

We also invite you to ‍join the conversation on our community Slack Channel to share your ideas with thousands of data engineers and help make everyone’s project a success. With Airbyte, the integration possibilities are endless, and we can't wait to see what you will build.

Should you build or buy your data pipelines?

Download our free guide and discover the best approach for your needs, whether it's building your ELT solution in-house or opting for Airbyte Open Source or Airbyte Cloud.

Download now

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Experience swift Postgres replication, effortlessly transferring data between databases in just 10 minutes.